Impedance and Multi Wavelength Infrared Spectroscopy IC
A multi-modal spectroscopy IC combining impedance spectroscopy (IMPS) and multi-wavelength near-infrared spectroscopy (mNIRS) is proposed for high precision non-invasive glucose level estimation. A combination of IMPS and mNIRS can compensate for the glucose estimation error to improve its accuracy. The IMPS circuit measures dielectric characteristics of the tissue using the RLC resonant frequency and the resonant impedance to estimate the glucose level. To accurately find resonant frequency, a 2-step frequency sweep sinusoidal oscillator (FSSO) is proposed: 1) 8-level coarse frequency switching (f STEP = 9.4 kHz) in 10–76 kHz, and 2) fine analog frequency sweep in the range of 18.9 kHz. During the frequency sweep, the adaptive gain control loop stabilizes the output voltage swing (400 mV p-p ).
To improve accuracy of mNIRS, three wavelengths, 850 nm, 950 nm, and 1,300 nm, are used. For highly accurate glucose estimation, the measurement data of the IMPS and mNIRS are combined by an artificial neural network (ANN) in external DSP. The proposed ANN method reduces the mean absolute relative difference to 8.3% from 15% of IMPS, and 15–20% of mNIRS in 80–180 mg/dL blood glucose level. The proposed multi-modal spectroscopy IC occupies 12.5 mm 2 in a 0.18 µm 1P6M CMOS technology and dissipates a peak power of 38 mW with the maximum radiant emitting power of 12.1 mW.
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