Microwave Ablations With Internal Vaporization
Numerical simulation is increasingly being utilized for computer-aided design of treatment devices, analysis of ablation growth, and clinical treatment planning. Simulation models to date have incorporated electromagnetic wave propagation and heat conduction, but not other relevant physics such as water vaporization and mass transfer. Such physical changes are particularly noteworthy during the intense heat generation associated with microwave heating. In this paper, a numerical model was created that integrates microwave heating with water vapor generation and transport by using porous media assumptions in the tissue domain.
The heating physics of the water vapor model was validated through temperature measurements taken at locations 5, 10, and 20 mm away from the heating zone of the microwave antenna in homogenized ex vivo bovine liver setup. Cross-sectional area of water vapor transport was validated through intraprocedural computed tomography (CT) during microwave ablations in homogenized ex vivo bovine liver. Iso-density contours from CT images were compared to vapor concentration contours from the numerical model at intermittent time points using the Jaccard index. In general, there was an improving correlation in ablation size dimensions as the ablation procedure proceeded, with a Jaccard index of 0.27, 0.49, 0.61, 0.67, and 0.69 at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min, respectively. This study demonstrates the feasibility and validity of incorporating water vapor concentration into thermal ablation simulations and validating such models experimentally.
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