• Matlab
  • Simulink
  • NS3
  • OMNET++
  • NS2

Hyperspectral Data with Markov Random Fields

In this paper, we propose a new spectral-spatial classification strategy to enhance the classification performances obtained on hyperspectralimages by integrating rotation forests and Markov random fields (MRFs). First, rotation forests are performed to obtain the class probabilities based on spectral information. Rotation forests create diverse base learners using feature extraction and subset features. The feature set is randomly divided into several disjoint subsets; then, feature extraction is performed separately on each subset, and a new set of linear extracted features is obtained. The base learner is trained with this set. An ensemble of classifiers is constructed by repeating these steps several times. The weak classifier of hyperspectral data, classification and regression tree (CART), is selected as the base classifier because it is unstable, fast, and sensitive to rotations of the axes. In this case, small changes in the training data of CART lead to a large change in the results, generating high diversity within the ensemble.

Four feature extraction methods, including principal component analysis (PCA), neighborhood preserving embedding (NPE), linear local tangent space alignment (LLTSA), and linearity preserving projection (LPP), are used in rotation forests. Second, spatial contextual information, which is modeled by MRF prior, is used to refine the classification results obtained from the rotation forests by solving a maximum a posteriori problem using the α-expansion graph cuts optimization method. Experimental results, conducted on three hyperspectral data with different resolutions and different contexts, reveal that rotation forest ensembles are competitive with other strong supervised classification methods, such as support vector machines. Rotation forests with local feature extraction methods, including NPE, LLTSA, and LPP, can lead to higher classification accuracies than that achieved by PCA. With the help of MRF, the proposed algo- ithms can improve the classification accuracies significantly, confirming the importance of spatial contextual information in hyperspectral spectral-spatial classification.

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