• Matlab
• NS3
• OMNET++
• COOJA
• CONTIKI OS
• NS2

Specifically for IoT-based applications, simulation of Long Range (LoRa) technology in MATLAB is very useful to investigate its performance and features and is examined as a better approach. By encompassing various factors such as network protocols, modulation methods, and signal propagation, MATLAB enables for designing and simulation of LoRa networks in an in-depth manner because of having a wider collection of toolboxes. To carry out the process of LoRa simulation in MATLAB, we suggest a general procedure to consider:

Step 1: Specify LoRa Simulation Parameters

Initially, all the major parameters for your LoRa simulation have to be specified. It encompasses:

• Spreading Factor (SF): It typically impacts range and data rate as it ranges from 7 to 12.
• Bandwidth (BW): General values in bandwidth are 125 kHz, 250 kHz, and 500 kHz.
• Coding Rate (CR): It affects the abilities of error correction as it ranges from 4/5 to 4/8.
• Transmission Power and Receiver Sensitivity are also included in the major parameters.
• Channel Model: Channel model involves interference contexts, noise levels, and path loss model.

Step 2: Implement LoRa Modulation

In general, Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) is utilized by LoRa. Sometimes, there might be a requirement to apply LoRa modulator if an in-built LoRa modulator might not be identified in MATLAB:

1. Generate Chirps: On the basis of the spreading factor, develop downchirps and upchirps.
2. Modulate Data: For the transmission purposes, you should map your data bits to the developed chirps.

% Example of generating a simple upchirp

fs = 1e6; % Sampling frequency

T = 1e-3; % Chirp duration

t = 0:1/fs:T-1/fs;

f0 = 0; % Start frequency

f1 = fs/2; % End frequency

upchirp = chirp(t,f0,T,f1,’linear’);

Step 3: Channel Modeling

After the implementation, the transmission medium must be simulated:

1. Path Loss: Appropriate to your context, apply a path loss model like highly complicated urban models or free-space path loss models.
2. Noise: To simulate channel noise, gaussian noise has to be appended to the signal.
3. Interference: From various technologies or other LoRa signals, include interference possibly.

% Example of adding noise to a signal

rxSignal = awgn(upchirp, 30, ‘measured’); % Add white Gaussian noise with 30 dB SNR

Step 4: Receiver and Demodulation

Then, apply the capability of the receiver:

1. Signal Detection: The incoming chirps have to be found and integrated to the signal.
2. Demodulation: The chirps that are obtained must be demodulated back into bits. The process of connecting the obtained signals with the familiar chip patterns is also included.

Step 5: Performance Assessment

Performance of your LoRa simulation should be assessed appropriately:

1. Bit Error Rate (BER): To estimate the BER, contrast the shared and obtained data.
2. Packet Delivery Rate: For accessing the success rate, simulate several transmissions.
3. Range and Coverage: It is significant to examine in what way the efficient range is impacted by spreading factor and other major parameters.

Step 6: Visualization and Analysis

To examine the simulation outcomes, develop visuals and plots:

1. Signal Waveforms: The shared and obtained signals have to be plotted.
2. Spectrum: For visualizing the spectrum of LoRa signals, utilize the spectrumAnalyzer in MATLAB.
3. Performance Metrics: Contrary to different parameters such as transmission power and spreading factor, plot range, BER, or other major indicators.

figure;

subplot(2,1,1);

plot(t, upchirp);

title(‘Transmitted Signal’);

xlabel(‘Time (s)’);

ylabel(‘Amplitude’);

subplot(2,1,2);

plot(t, rxSignal);

title(‘Received Signal with Noise’);

xlabel(‘Time (s)’);

ylabel(‘Amplitude’);

## Does the NS 3 simulator support the LoRa and the Adaptive Data Rate feature in the LoRa?

In low-power, wide-area networks (LPWANs), Long Range (LoRa) technology is utilized in an extensive manner. Several specific aspects in Internet of Things (IoT) advancements and research, including transmission power, data rates, and airtime can be enhanced by its Adaptive Data Rate (ADR) characteristic.

The following are general descriptions on the basis of the aid for LoRa and its ADR characteristics in NS-3:

1. LoRa Support: To simulate LoRaWAN networks that are commonly related to LoRa mechanism, the modules and dedications which are created by the research committee have been assisted by NS-3. For assessing the LoRaWAN efficiency in different contexts like diverse energy configurations, channel tactics, and spreading factors, these dedications intend to offer tools. By focusing on various factors such as scalability, interruption, and range, the simulator enables researchers, specifically for designing the LoRa networks activity.
2. Adaptive Data Rate (ADR): With the intention of extending the network ability and battery durability, ADR is modeled for the enhancement of transmission power of devices and data rate in terms of network states. It is generally considered as a major aspect of LoRaWAN. On the basis of network states like connection standard and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the simulation of dynamic adaptation of these arguments would be included in the assistance for ADR in respect to NS-3. In adapting the data rate and energy levels of LoRa devices, the decision-making procedure of the network server must be designed by the executions in NS-3 in a precise manner.

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4. Exploring Vehicle Tracking Performance with LoRa Technology: An Analysis of Speed and Environmental Factors
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8. Analysis of LoRa (Long Range) Performance as The Development of Remote Communication for Earthquake Detection Systems in High-rise Buildings
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10. Initial Coverage Analysis of LoRa Communication for Light Buoy Monitoring System in Port Area
11. A Novel Approach to Collision Avoidance in LoRa Networks
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13. Sprinkler Irrigation System for Pakcoy Cultivation Based on Mamdani Fuzzy Logic and LoRa Communication
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